NaPROCLA - Natural Pest Regulation in Orphan Crop Legumes in Africa
Donor: BBSRC GCRF SASSA Initiative
Value: Approx. £1 million
Partners: NRI, NM-AIST, LUANAR, Egerton University, Charles Sturt University advising
Pest damage of legumes is one of the major challenges to food and nutritional security in Africa and disproportionately affects poor farmers growing low-input orphan crop grain legumes such as beans, pigeon pea, cowpea and lablab. Pest control is typically dependent on high agrochemical inputs which may have negative impacts on users and consumers and severely impact non-target invertebrates that can otherwise be beneficial to food production through pollination or natural pest regulation. Natural Pest Regulation has been estimated to be worth US$906 billion. Non-crop habitats in field margins provide the environment required to support natural enemies of pests including hoverflies. Management or manipulation of this non-crop habitat can help to support natural pest regulation and can even be augmented and sustained in better managed natural or manipulated agro-ecosystems. The occurrence, density and impacts of most beneficial insects in smallholder ecosystems, however, are poorly understood, particularly in Africa.
This new project "NaPROCLA" (Natural Pest Regulation on Orphan Crop Legumes in Africa) will take forward recent findings by our partnership and identify the key taxa that support and deliver natural pest regulation. We will develop approaches that support and augment natural pest regulation through improved agroecosystems management with reduced pesticide use. The research will provide evidence for benefits of natural pest regulation and establish how this can be optimised through better landscape management or manipulation and how natural pest regulation can function alongside other management practises including natural pest resistance, botanical insecticides and intercropping.
Harnessing agricultural ecosystem biodiversity for bean production and food security
Donor: UK Darwin Initiative (DfID/Defra)
Partners: RBG Kew, NRI, NM-AIST, LUANAR
Project profile on the UK Darwin Initiative website
This project will survey plant and invertebrate biodiversity in bean ecosystems in Tanzania and Malawi and evaluate their ecologies and identify plant species that (i) attract, nourish and provide habitat for natural enemies of pests; (ii) promote the activity of pollinator insects in crops and (iii) provide environmentally-benign ‘botanical insecticides’ as additional control for pests. This will require a systematic analysis of roles and interactions of pest and biological control species/habitats, supporting development of management systems that increase productivity through strategic integration of biodiversity. Using this knowledge we will develop interventions that maintain and optimise these ecosystem services.
Safe and effective pesticidal plants for agro-ecological intensification of legumes
Donor: McKnight Foundation
Partners: RBG Kew, NRI, NM-AIST, LUANAR
Project profile on the McKnight Collaborative Crop Research Programme website
The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate farmer relevant pest management practices that can reduce crop losses to pests in Malawi and Tanzania through the development and optimization of plant-based pest management technologies that are simple, effective, reliable, safe, low-cost and appropriate for the control of field and storage insect pests of legume crops grown by poor farmers. The technologies will be based on widely distributed and easily cultivated species such as Tephrosia vogelii, Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Pyrethrum), Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica and Dysphania ambrosioides as well as indigenous woody plants such as Zanha africana and Securidaca longepedunculata. In carrying out this general goal, we plan to build technical capacity for a pesticidal plant sector by supporting and mentoring Masters students who will have opportunities to carry out a range of lab, field and farm based research cutting across disciplines of natural product chemistry, entomology, chemical ecology, insect behaviour as well as experimental design, data collection, statistical analysis, working with farmers and using analytical tools. A second goal is to help champion the development of the pesticidal plant value chain in Africa by working with businesses and policy makers in order to increase supply and demand of pest control options suitable for integration into agro-ecological intensification programmes.
SAFE Hub - Sustainable Agriculture From Ecological-intensification
Project under development
Partners: See project page
The SAFE Hub will overcome barriers to wide ecological intensification (EI) adoption by:
- Collating existing evidence and facilitating new interdisciplinary research to investigate the social, economic and ecological viability of EI within current and future farming systems relevant to each region.
- Building active partnerships and collaborative ways of working between farmers, policymakers, industry, retailers and EI researchers, to raise awareness and build capacity.
- Developing content for evidence-based awareness-raising and training materials relating to the importance and management of ecosystem services in agriculture.
- Ensuring relevance to local context and whole systems, through understanding local trends to focus on different levels of policy change to influence: policy Instruments (e.g., targeted investment), overall policy (i.e., challenge conventions aligned to conventional agricultural inputs), and stimulate policy paradigm shifts.
- Co-developing mechanisms for appropriate, accessible, and reliable agricultural advice in each region, with particular focus on issues of justice, equity and ethics.
The SAFE hub will demonstrate that the benefits flowing from investment in EI innovations greatly outweigh the costs of inaction
Innovation for improved strawberry pollination by commercial bumblebees using caffeine
Donor: BBSRC IPA with Biobest Ltd and Berry Gardens Growers Ltd.
Partners: NRI, NIAB EMR, Berry Gardens Growers Ltd., Biobest Ltd.
Project page on NRI website
This project is investigaing whether it is possible to prime managed bumblebees on strawberry farms to prefer foraging on the flowers of the crop, in order to pollinate them more effectively. The project is carrying out experiments to test the ability of caffeine to improve crop pollination in field and laboratory settings. Bumblebees are provided experimentally with caffeinated nectar alongside a synthetic strawberry flower's scent. Since caffeine improves bees' memory for the scents of flowers, we are evaluating whether these bees show increased foraging activity and attraction to strawberry flowers when they receive this priming treatment. We predict that if the preference of commercial bumblebees for strawberries is improved, the bees will visit more flowers, be more efficient at pollinating the crop and thus will enable the production of higher-quality, more valuable fruit.